Human Structure and Function II will enable you to build on your learning in HSFI as it is in a similar format with similar modes of assessment. Again you will be provided with an understanding of essential anatomical, physiological & biochemical concepts that you can apply to problem based scenarios. The topics include the structure and function of the nervous system, muscle, the respiratory system, the renal system and the endocrine system. Aspects of imbalance in these systems will also be considered. You will also explore the principles and applications to the human body of acid base balance, pH, dissociation constants and buffers. Also covered is cell division, the cell cycle, growth and the stages of human development. Finally you will explore the principles of genetics and some of its applications
Aims and Objectives
Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:
- Explain the principle functions of specified hormones
- Describe applications of genetic manipulation and engineering
- Explain the structure and function of the excretory system
- Outline the structure and function of the human nervous system
- Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of muscle physiology
- Demonstrate a sound understanding of the concepts of pH, acid-base balance, drug ionisation and buffer systems
- Demonstrate development of effective communication using oral, writing and computing skills
- Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanisms of respiration
- Demonstrate development of your skills in analysis, presentation and manipulation of data
- Identify the phases of the cell cycle and causes and implications of its disruption
- Indicate development of skills in reading and research in specified topics
- Demonstrate a sound understanding of the principles of genetics
- Describe key features and stages in the human life cycle
- Indicate development of independent working skills, team working and problem solving skills
- Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of neurophysiology
- Apply an understanding of the above to the functions of the excretory system, transport of blood gases and respiratory system
- Predict the effect of specified endocrine malfunction
- Compare and contrast the structure and function of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems, including reflexes
- Evaluate the co-ordinating and integrative role of the nervous system
In order to meet the learning outcomes, the syllabus will contain teaching in the following areas:
- Structural organisation and function of the human nervous system
Structure and function of the CNS and PNS. Neurogenesis and neural regeneration. Neuropathies and primary demyelinating diseases.
Resting membrane potentials, graded potentials and action potentials. Examples of NS infections. Types and characteristics of synapses. Transmission at synapses. Examples of common neurotransmitters and drug interactions at synapses. Characteristics and components of a reflex. Characteristics and control of the autonomic nervous system. Comparison of the structure and function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Drug action e.g. beta blockers and sympathomimetics. Levels of hierarchy of somatic motor control. Neuronal pathways and tracts, neural integration. Structures and features of the main regions of the brain, features and possible causes of common brain disorders.
- Muscle Physiology
Characteristics, function and features of muscle types and the neuromuscular junction. Micro-organisation of skeletal muscle and events of muscle contraction. Muscle twitch and tetanus, isotonic and isometic contraction. Muscle tone and fatigue. Examples of muscle disorders.
- Renal Physiology
Structure and function of the urinary system. Structure and roles of nephrons and regulation of GFR. Body fluids, compartments and balance and renal regulation of osmolality. Action of diuretics. Possible causes of abnormal urinary constituents.
- Endocrine Physiology
Key glands, secretions and actions of the endocrine system. Key differences and similarities between the nervous and endocrine system. Regulation of blood glucose, diabetes type I and II and ketoacidosis. Thyroid and parathyroid hormones, abnormal thyroid conditions. Hormonal regulation of calcium, causes and consequences of abnormal calcium levels. Hormones of the adrenal glands, control of regulation, response to stress, consequences of over and under secretion. Roles of interrelationship of hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
Mitosis, meiosis and gametogenesis. DNA replication and protein synthesis. The cell cycle and its regulation. Regulation of gene expression and gene mutation. Consequences of disruption of regulation of cell cycle. Genetic inheritance. Genetic engineering and gene therapy.
- Acid Base Balance
pH of body fluids, buffers, pka and ionisation of drugs, acid base regulation, arterial blood gases. Metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
- Blood Gas Transport
Diffusion of gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide transport in the blood, factors affecting blood gas transport. Causes and consequences of anaemia.
- Respiratory mechanisms
Basic mechanisms and muscles involved in lung expansion and contraction. Pulmonary ventilation.
- The Human Life Cycle
Stages of life, factors affecting quality and longevity of life. Types of growth and growth disorders. Bone growth and maintenance. Use of growth charts. Cause and effect of ageing of tissues and systems. Main theories of ageing.
Learning and Teaching
Teaching and learning methods
The module will be taught through a range of learning and teaching strategies which will include:
- Tutor led tutorials
- Practical sessions
- Guided self-study
- Problem solving scenarios
- Group work
|Completion of assessment task||60|
|Practical classes and workshops||16|
|Wider reading or practice||15|
|Preparation for scheduled sessions||50|
|Total study time||375|
Resources & Reading list
Addition recommended reading is available in the year 0 programme overview.
Miko, I. & LeJeune, L. eds (2009). Essentials of Genetics. Cambridge, MA: NPG Education.
Marieb EN, Hoehn K. (2013). Human Anatomy & Physiology. London: Pearson.
There are two components students need to complete, a coursework component and an examination component.
Both components need to be passed for progression and there is no compensation allowed between components.
The examination component has two exams and compensation is allowed across both examinations.
Failed students need to resit only the failed component at the supplementary opportunity.
Students are not normally permitted to repeat the year.
This is how we’ll give you feedback as you are learning. It is not a formal test or exam.Critical Analysis
This is how we’ll formally assess what you have learned in this module.
This is how we’ll assess you if you don’t meet the criteria to pass this module.
Repeat type: External